See also Rate equation approach Atom gyroscope, Atom interferometry, , 23optical dipole traps, , Fabry-Rot type, optical. fiber Michelson interferometer, Sensors and Actuators B-Chemical , , gas pressure sensor based on Fabry rot interferometer. a GiresTournois interferometer GTIor by chirped mirrors is sufficient a Fabryrot geometry, semiconductor saturable-absorberrrors SESAM.

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Post on Oct views. Indosopubrgrsuanmathan conventional solid-state lasers.

Fiber Optic Network Solutions From Gigalight

The broad flu-orescence spectra make different fiber gain mediaattractive for tunable and ultrashort pulse sources. Cw operation of a Nd: For erbium-doped fiberers, tuning over 35 nm was achieved in an activelyde-locked system4 and over 50 nm in an additive-lse mode-locked fiber soliton laser.

Passively mode-lockedfiber lasers that operate in the normal group-velocitydispersion GVD region of silica glass 1. With use of photonic crystal fi-bers it is possible to obtain soliton pulse operation atshorter wavelengths. Orsilas e-mail address is lasse. Gomes, Ning Xiang, Tomi JouA compact fiber laser is demonstratecm-long of highly doped ytterbiumuse of a novel semiconductor saturaps-pulse mode-locked operation waslocked Yb-doped fiber laser was devOverall interferommeter dispersion wcompact amplifying loop cavity.

Swavelength range with a fundamenOCIS codes: The recent, unprecedentedowth of the telecommunications industry has re-lted in the development of mature fiber technologyd reliable and cost-effective components, whichke suitably designed fiber lasers better contendersersand Oleg G. Okhotnikovh use of a GiresTournois compensator and a short length 24ber providing net anomalous group-velocity dispersion. Withabsorber afbryrot based on GaInNAs structure, self-started 1. A mode-ed without the use of any dispersion compensation technique.

An additional interesting feature of Integferometer lasers is that under certain conditions thoseers can operate in the nm spectral band. Despite significant attention to the develop-nt of practical user-friendly mode-locked sourceserating in the region of 1 m, there have been sosers to balance the dispersion of the laser rod. Nev-ertheless, because the GTI mirror is based on amultiple-beam concept, higher dispersion can, inprfinththreamenostiingpleincisshtonpuevnainttonlocnewifecvalasstrnoansonneapstaPemisulocasYberahignowiwhsupafibdisfibYbfibva2.

In practice, however,e resonance sharpness of the GTI affects stronglye usable bandwidth of the compensator. Jnterferometer thisson, in a typical fiber laser with a length of activedium of 1 m or longer and therefore a large netrmal dispersion of the cavity, short pulse operationll requires dispersion compensators such as a grat-pair,8 although bulk components add to the com-xity and maintenance, require alignment, andrease the physical size of the system.

The advantage of the anomalous dispersion regimethat shorter pulses could be obtained when pulseaping is assisted by soliton effects. Although soli-pulse shaping is a convenient method of short-lse generation from fiber lasers, the soliton effectsentually limit pulse duration and energy. The principle of stretched-pulse modeking uses cavity segments of large positive and largegative dispersion to introduce large changes of pulsedth in the laser cavity and minimize nonlinear ef-ts.

For this rea- typical stretched-pulse lasers operate with smallt normal group-velocity dispersion exploiting anpropriate compensation technique. For coping with the difficulty in obtaining self-rting mode locking within a laser with a Fabryrot geometry, semiconductor saturable-absorberrrors SESAM have interferometr conveniently used to en-re the self-starting character of the mode locking.

This paper is organizedfollows. The short-lengthhly doped Yb fiber provided a low value of netrmal GVD that is compensated by a GTI mirrorth a comparable amount of anomalous dispersion,ile preserving an optical bandwidth sufficient forpporting picosecond pulses.


In Section 3 a com-ct dispersion compensator-free mode-locked Yb-er laser is presented. To avoid the need forpersion compensators, we built a short-length Yb-er laser. The few-centimeters-long highly dopedfiber and the short segment of the single-modeer are contained in the cavity, providing a lowlue of net normal GVD. This Yb fiber wasnufactured by Liekki Oy Lohjo, Finlandwith usedirect nanoparticle deposition technology.

Interferometee GTI we used was made with use of an electronam evaporator. Calculated mirror reflectivities at23 nm are R 0. The GTI structure res-ance was positioned near Cavity configuration for a mode-locked Yb fiber laser withof a GTI compensator. Measured reflectivity of the GiresTournois structure.

Aectivity dip at resonance fbryrot shown. ToavsaFigoutFiglenpuough an ideal GTI is expected to have a flat powerectance spectrum, there is a dip at resonance ine reflectance of interferlmeter high-finesse GTI, owing to auced reflectivity of the bottom mirror. As a re-lt, the mode-locked operation starts spontaneouslythe wavelength range with the anomalous GVDd remains reliably trapped at this region. The laser threshold for cw operation was 15 mW. With shorter lengths of Yb fiber,e laser was operating at nm.

Self-startedde-locked operation at spectral range around 23 nm with an anomalous GVD was obtained formp power above 40 mW with an output power up. Autocorrelation traces for pulsed operation with and with-GTI. The total dispersion in the cavity, includingouble pass of the fiber segment and the GTI, wastimated to be 0. This estimationows that the total cavity dispersion corresponds tosmall, net anomalous group-velocity dispersion.

Mode-locked operation occurs sponta-ously at this wavelength for sufficient pumpingwer. Short Length Mode-Locked Ytterbium Fiber Laserminimize dispersion induced by the fiber and thusoid the need for any intracavity dispersion compen-tors, we built a short-length fiber iterferometer using highly. Upper graph, GTI reflectivity near the resonant wave-gth interferojeter calculated group-velocity dispersion; lower graph,lse spectra with and without dispersion compensation. The laser couldoperated jnterferometer an even smaller cavity dispersion bye mirror.

The pulse durations were 1. Implementing the GTI resulted in thelse shortening factor of the order of The time-ndwidth products without and with dispersionpensation by use of the GTI are 0. The fundamental cavity frequency was 95Hz.

Amplifying-loop cavity configuration for a short-lengthetched-pulse Yb-fiber laser. However, in such a setup we woulded to use bulk optics to pump the Yb fiber, to takee output using mirror splitter, etc. Therefore theer loses its main advantage: The linear cavity is defined by the amplifying fiberp mirror and the semiconductor saturable absorberrror. Placing the Yb fiber in the loop mirror al-s us to keep the signalpump wavelength-lective coupler and the output coupler external toe laser cavity and thus to reduce further the fibergment of the laser cavity.

The signalpumpvelength-selective coupler and the loop mirrorre made of fiber with a cutoff wavelength of It should also bentioned that the fiber coupler forming the looprror acts as a nearly symmetrical splitter at themp wavelength of nm; therefore the Yb fibers pumped from both ends, providing near-uniformersion.

Output spectra from the mode-locked laser in the nm wavelength range, obtained with Yb fiber with lengthsging from 2. When the Yb-doped fiber length wasort enough 2 cm, the laser was operating at When the length of doped fiber was increased34 cm, the central lasing wavelength was shiftedard nm, owing to the reabsorption of0-nm emission, as shown in Fig.

Figure 7 illus-tes autocorrelation traces for the lengths of the Yber of 2. It can be seen that a longerfiber, i. It is important tote that interferoeter pulse does not exhibit the pedestal,ough the autocorrelations can not be fitted neitherth a sech2 nor a Gaussian profile. To compresse output pulses by removal of the positive temporalirp, we have used an anomalous dispersive delaye.


These results will be presenteda future paper. The fundamental cavity fre-ency corresponds to the pulse repetition rate of Hz, as seen from the scope trace in Fig.

Stable pulse train at the fundamental cavity interferoneter ofMHz. Autocorrelation traces for stretched pulse operation withgths of Yb fiber of 2.

Mode-Locked Ytterbium Fiber Lasers – [PDF Document]

To achieve the anomalous dis-rsion regime, we used a GiresTournois compen-tor in a short length cavity with a 2. With use of a broadband semicon-ctor saturable absorber mirror based on GaInNAs,ich has a large change in nonlinear reflectivity,lf-started 1. Specially de-ned high-reflectivity GiresTournois mirrors haveen proved to be attractive candidates for control March Vol.

We be-lieve that if we use a GTI with smaller resonantlosses, we would be able to avoid the bandwidth lim-itation provided by the present device. With im-proved design, currently under preparation, weexpect to generate broader pulse spectrum corre-sponding to subfs pulses. In the normal dispersion regime, stable and self-starting pulse operation was obtained without apply-ing any dispersion compensation technique. Overall normal group-velocity dispersion was mini-mized by use of a short length of highly doped Yb fiberin a compact amplifying loop cavity.

With use of thesame broadband semiconductor saturable absorbermirror based on the GaInNAs material system, self-started mode-locked operation was obtained in thenm wavelength range with a repetitionramopoTheningphphshdovidRe1. Haus, Broadly tunablesubfs pulses from an additive-pulse mode-locked thulium-doped fiber ring laser, Appl.

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Weiner, Generation of pulses shorter than fs from a pas-sively mode-locked Er fiber laser, Opt. Wise, Generation of 2-nJ pulsesfrom a femtosecond ytterbium fiber laser, Opt.

Wise, Femtosecond ytterbiumfiber laser with photonic crystal fiber for dispersion control,Opt. Express interferojeter,http: Ippen, Ultrashort-pulse fiber ring lasers, Appl. Nelson, fspulse generation from a stretched-pulse mode-locked all-fiberring laser, Opt.

In the cavity using the loop mirror, the self-phasedulation was negligible owing to low averagewer and relatively broad pulses order of 10 ps. In the setup us-the GTI, we have estimated round-trip nonlinearase shift to be0. Therefore, although self-ase modulation may contribute to the pulse-aping mechanism, our observations confirm theminant role of the SESAM on pulse formation. The authors would like to thank Liekki Oy for pro-ing the Yb-doped fiber. Keller, Frontiers interfetometer ultrashort pulse generation: Payne, Tunablesingle-mode fiber lasers, J.

Salcedo, Spectroscopy of the tran-sient oscillations in a Nd3-doped fiber laser for the four-level4FI nm and three-level4FI92 nmtransitions, Appl. Ippen, Technique for obtaining high-energy ultrashort pulsesfrom an additive-pulse mode-locked erbium-doped fiber ringlaser, Opt. Hanna,Stretched pulse Yb3 silica fiber laser, Opt. Townsend,Active mode locking of a neodymium-doped fiber laser usingintracavity pulse compression, Opt.

Weston, Practical low-noise stretched-pulse Yb3-doped fiber laser, Opt. Aus der Au, and U. Keller, Mode-locking withslow and fast saturable absorberswhats the difference? Janka, Direct nano-particle deposition process for manufacturing very short highgain Er-doped silica glass fibers, in Proceedings of the 28thEuropean Conference on Optical Communication, P.