Fungi developing on dung samples, from a wide range of locations and incubated in moist chambers, were recorded. Highly significant differences were found. Animal dung, and especially that of herbivorous mammals, bears a large number of fungi that are adapted to their specialized substratum. Various adaptations. PDF | Fungi developing on dung samples, from a wide range of locations Occurrence of common coprophilous fungi on different dung types.

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Thirty-two species of coprophilous fungi were recorded from seven dung samples collected from the state of Matto Grosso do Sul, Brazil, and incubated in moist chambers. Descriptions of some of the more interesting fungi are given, and aspects of their biodiversity and ecology are discussed. Ascomycetes, coprophilous fungi, diversity, species richness. Coprophilous fungi may be useful indicators of habitat diversity Richardson, During a visit to Brazil inseven samples of herbivore dung were collected from the Bonito and Pantanal do Rio Negro areas Matto Grosso do Sul and incubated, on return to the U.

The coprophilous fungi that developed were recorded. Lundqvist and Van Brummelenin their monographic treatments of the Sordariaceae and Ascobolus and Saccoboluscolrophilous some early records but, apart from the collections of Andre de Meijer personal communication and Jahnthere seem to be few recent records of coprophilous fungi from Brazil. Details of the fungi found from the collection of samples are provided and discussed, together with some aspects of the diversity and species richness of the dung habitat in a small area of Brazil.

Samples were collected on 6 and 9 July Table 1.

Coprophilous fungi – Wikipedia

Most were dry when collected, and were placed in paper envelopes. Samples were rehydrated and incubated on 1 August on moist paper towelling in plastic boxes with lightly fitting transparent lids, under ambient light and at room temperature ca o C.

Care was taken to ensure that cultures were not too wet. Samples were generally of similar size, with incubation chambers 10 x ckprophilous cm, which would accommodate approx. Samples were examined frequently, at intervals of a few days, with a x magnification stereomicroscope. Fruiting bodies were removed and mounted in water for examination at higher magnification.


Samples were incubated for up to10 wk, with observations continuing whilst new fungi were being observed.

Selected material annotated M in the records below has been placed in the Herbarium of the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh. The seven samples provided a total of 75 records of 32 species. These records, although based on a very small number of samples, point to the high diversity of Brazilian coprophilic fungi. The mean species richness coprophillous That study used cumulative species curves to compare the species richness of an area or substrate by calculating the number colrophilous species expected to be recorded from a standard number 50 of samples of dung.

To provide a confident estimate of species richness a minimum sample size of is recommended, and estimates based on smaller subsets may give a less accurate value Richardson, Points of interest in these observations are the relative abundance of Saccobolus species in contrast to the scarcity of Ascobolusa ratio of 4.

It would be necessary to examine more samples to determine whether these are features of the Brazilian mycobiota or the result of a limited sample.

Coprophilous fungi from Brazil

A common and distinctive Ascobolus coprophillus, especially on ruminant dung, and characterised by very large ascospores Spores seriate, ellipsoid, hyaline, Spores in a 4 x 2 arrangement when young sect.

Saccobolussmooth or very minutely verrucose, truncate, Paraphyses with yellow contents.

Spore mass x 9. Eriobolussmooth to minutely verrucose, Paraphyses with yellowish contents, very slightly clavate.

A widespread but overlooked species, recorded from Peru in Van Brummelen, Paraphyses hyaline, very slightly clavate. Van Brummelen described S. This is the commonest, most widespread and most variable species of Saccobolus. These spores coprophilois slightly smaller than those described for C. Coprophilpus perithecia are very small and immersed, except for the erumpent neck and ostiole, Phomatospora spp.

Spores obliquely uniseriate, hyaline, ellipsoid, Niessl One of a small group of species that has spores with four apical secondary appendages.

Spores are biseriate, x Ascospores seriate, Some spores had a single basal secondary appendage at the tip of the primary appendage, but other spores were seen with short secondary appendages that appeared to be attached laterally to the primary appendage.


Traverso Perithecial necks with asymmetrically arranged tapering tufts of setae, ffungi of fascicles of non-inflated hyphae.

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Limited material of a large-spored species that could not be named. Secondary appendages difficult to see, either in the ascus or on free spores, but the short simple apical appendage had a fibrillose appearance, rather like the illustration of P.

A good collection of fertile stroma was found on horse dung in the field Figs 23. Stroma dark brown-blackish, thinly clavate, 8. Disc surface pale grey to pinkish when fresh, drying darker. Spores mostly partially biseriate, black, ellipsoid, x Krug Macroscopically similar to S.

It seems to be less frequent than S. Boedijn The particular feature of this fungus is its large spores, which have two pigmented cells America, but I have not found any other records from Brazil or S.

Asci were gradually tapered towards the base. On balance these features suggest an atypical S. Cap reddish, setulose, the setules brown and capitate. Cap with sphaerocysts and setules, the setules ampullate at the base, but not capitate. Spores ellipsoid, x 3.

Coprophilous fungi

Coprinus radiatus Bolton Fr. Lanatuliwith a veil of long-celled inflated hyphae. The basidiospores are intermediate in size between those of C.

This is the commonest Coprinus species developing on dung worldwide when incubated in moist chambers, and is characterised by its bright white veil of globose cells and small x Superficially like a large C. De Toni Mature fruit bodies of this ‘bird’s nest fungus’ were present in the field.

I am grateful to my son, Andrew, for translating the Portuguese summary. Mycological Papers, Mycological Research, in press. January 03, copropgilous Revised: March 14, ; Accepted: All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License.

Services on Demand Journal. Mycological Research, in press Van Brummelen, J. How to cite this article.